Molecular Genetics


HBV is a 40-45nm enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. The combination of transcriptase enzyme to genome replication makes HBV replication different from other DNA viruses. It settles in the liver and multiplies there. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is divided into 8 main genotypes and subtypes.


It is known that 2 billion people worldwide (approximately 1/3 of the world's population) are infected with Hepatitis B, and 400 million of them turn into chronic Hepatitis B disease. About 1 million people die every year due to Hepatitis B and the problems it causes. It develops in 75-80% of patients without any symptoms, and can be detected by chance during screening and blood donations.


HBV is 50-100 times more contagious than HIV and can remain active outdoors for up to 7 days. It spreads as a result of contact with blood and body secretions (semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, sweat, tears). the use of infected blood or blood products is transmitted from the infected mother to the infant during birth (when transmission occurs in the uterus in rare cases, at birth or immediately after birth), by infected needles and other medical surgical equipment, by unprotected sexual intercourse, by needles used for tattooing. Real-time HPV DNA testing is the fastest method of detection of infection, providing the most reliable information about the presence and type of HPV and best supports the treatment and monitoring of the disease.


Diagnosis and monitoring of HBV infections; Serological tests that detect antigens (found in the core or envelope) or antibodies (IgM and IgG) in patient serum are widely used to determine the stage of infection and to evaluate infectivity. Serological methods are ineffective in the period before antibody formation. This handicap is easily overcome by real-time PCR tests. In addition, the false-negative results of the antibodies that are left after the virus is eliminated are prevented. This method is important for the best demonstration of viral replication, confirmation of serological markers, follow-up of diagnosis and treatment and elucidation of confusion caused by mutant virus infections.