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Molecular Genetics

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) DNA Genotyping

Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses that are members of the Papovaviridae family. The type of papillomavirus that causes infections in humans is called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV or IPV). HPV is an unshielded virus with double helix circular DNA, and multiplies in the nucleus of the infected cell. HPV infection can occur at any age. HPV virus, which is widespread all over the world, puts every woman at risk regardless of socio-cultural and economic level. Approximately 70-80% of women are infected at least once in their lifetime.

Epidemiology

HPV has more than 150 genotypes. Genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68 are classified as high-risk HPV. HPVs in this high-risk group may develop cervical cancer in women with persistent infection. HPV has been reported to cause 500,000 cases of cervical cancer each year in the world, and is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women in developing countries. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are cited as the cause of approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide.

Transmission

90% of HPV infections are sexually transmitted. In the genital area, the incubation period of the virus is variable and may take longer than 3 months depending on the immune structure of the subject, although it may take approximately 3 months. Infection; It can pass from the HPV positive mother to the child via the vertical route. It is also transmitted by non-sexual contact with infected urogenital secretions (infected towels, biopsy instruments, gloves, etc.).

Diagnosis

Real-time HPV DNA testing is the fastest method of detecting infection, providing the most reliable information about the presence and type of HPV, and best supports the treatment and monitoring of the disease. Pentagene Genetics perform a semiquantitative test which can be define 28 different HPV type.